DOD refers to direct outward dialing. If an employee can dial and reach an outside number without internal operator intervention, then the company has implemented DOD. In the past, when less-sophisticated telephone systems were available, it was not uncommon for a company to route all of its outbound calls through an internal operator. The operator’s responsibility was both to screen calls (no, you may not call Australia from that telephone) and to route the calls over the appropriate facilities (e.g., the right WATS lineā€”see below). With the advent of modern PBXs and Centrex, such limitations can be programmed, if desired, on a telephone by telephone, or even user-by-user basis, eliminating the requirement to involve an operator in outbound calls. DOD is a term not often used these days because few companies consider not providing it.